Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine produced by several types of cells, predominantly activated macrophages. TNF-α plays an important role in the immune response to microbial invasions and in the necrosis of specific tumors. TNF-α exists in two forms; a type II transmembrane protein and a mature soluble protein. The TNF-α transmembrane protein is proteolytically cleaved to yield a soluble protein, which subsequently forms a non-covalently linked homotrimer in solution. The individual subunits of this homotrimer have a relative molecular mass each of 17350 Daltons.
Recombinant human TNF-α is produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the full-length sequence for the human TNF-α gene. These transfected cells produce and secrete biologically active TNF-α. The recombinant protein is purified by affinity chromatography.
Recombinant human TNF-α can be used to induce NF-κb and AP-1 pathways in HEK-Blue™ TNF-α cells.