CPPD Crystals

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NLRP3 Inflammasome Inducer - Calcium Pyrophosphate Dihydrate crystals
CPPD Crystals

Calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) is the aetiological agent of the joint acute inflammatory disease pseudogout. Notably, research has demonstrated that CPPD crystals induce the release of interleukin (IL)-1β in response to the activation of the NLRP3 (also known as NALP3 or cryopyrin) inflammasome [1]. The NLRP3 inflammasome is an intracellular multi-protein complex that plays a central role in innate immunity [2, 3].

Mode of action:

Similar to uric acid, the causative agent of gout, CPPD crystals can act as endogenous danger signals that stimulate the innate immune system to produce inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β [1]. CPPD crystals were shown to activate caspase-1, which is required for IL-1β maturation, through the NRLP3 (NALP3) inflammasome [2]. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a caspase-1-activating complex comprising the NLR protein NLRP3 and the adaptor ASC [3]. Engagement of the NRLP3 inflammasome is supported by the finding that macrophages from mice deficient in various components of the inflammasome do not respond to the injection of CPPD crystals [2].

Key features of CPPD crystals:

  • Potent inducer of the NLRP3 inflammasome
  • Each lot is functionally tested

Read our review on the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Download our Practical guide on Inflammasomes.

References:

  1. Shi Y. et al., 2003. Molecular identification of a danger signal that alerts the immune system to dying cells. Nature 425(6957):516-21
  2. Martinon F. et al., 2006. Gout-associated uric acid crystals activate the NALP3 inflammasome. Nature. 440(7081):237-41.
  3. Martinon F. & Tschopp J., 2004. Inflammatory caspases: linking an intracellular innate immune system to autoinflammatory diseases. Cell. 117(5):561-74.

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