InvivoGen offers anti-hTNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) antibodies with various isotypes to meet your research needs.
TNF-α is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in necrotic and apoptotic cell deaths, cellular differentiation, inflammation, and regulation of immune cell activity . TNF-α is mainly produced by activated monocytes, macrophages, and T cells, as transmembrane (tmTNF) or soluble (sTNF) trimeric proteins . Both forms bind homotrimeric transmembrane receptors, TNFR1 or TNFR2, leading either to cell death or proliferation and production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 . Importantly, tmTNF can also mediate a reverse "outside-to-inside" signaling, although this mechanism remains to be fully elucidated .
Our anti-hTNF-α antibodies have been engineered to feature the variable region of adalimumab, a fully-humanized therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against human TNF-α, and the constant domain of various isotypes. The variable region of adalimumab blocks the interaction of both tmTNF and sTNF with TNFR1 and TNFR2, thereby downregulating the inflammatory reactions associated with autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn’s disease [1,2]. The different constant domain isotypes display different levels of Fc (fragment crystallizable)-mediated effector functions such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and antibody-dependent cell phagocytosis (ADCP).
Our anti-hTNF-α isotype family was generated by recombinant DNA technology, produced in CHO cells, and purified by different types of affinity chromatography: protein G for IgG isotypes and peptide M for the IgA isotype.
- Steeland S., et al. 2018. A new venue of TNF targeting. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19:1442.
- Shealy D.J. & Visvanathan S. 2008. Anti-TNF antibodies: lessons from the past, roadmap for the future. Therapeutic Antibodies (book). 101-129.